Windows Server 2012 connected to a local domain network reports network type as a "Public Network". This causes Windows Firewall to block some network services that are expected to work on a domain network (i.e. Remote Desktop).
The issue was caused by a missing "DNS suffix" in Network Adapter properties.
Network Connections > <Ethernet Adapter> > Properties > IPv4 > Properties > Advanced > DNS
"DNS suffix for this connection" field should have your local domain name. For the changes to take effect you need to restart "Network Location Awareness" service.
Windows Server 2012 domain